Chemical bonding

Specific Learning Objectives:

(a) describe the formation of ions by electron loss/gain in order to obtain the electronic structure of a noble gas
(b) describe the formation of ionic (electrovalent) bonds between metals and non-metals as the electrostatic force which holds two oppositely charged ions together., e.g. NaCl, MgCl2 and MgO, including the use of ‘dot and cross’ diagrams
(c) state that ionic materials contain a giant lattice in which the ions are held by electrostatic attraction, e.g. NaCl
(d) deduce the formulae of other ionic compounds from diagrams of their lattice structures, limited to binary compounds
(e) relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of ionic compounds to their lattice structure
(f) describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons in order to gain the electronic configuration of a noble gas
(g) describe, including the use of ‘dot and cross’ diagrams, the formation of covalent bonds between non-metallic elements e.g. H2; O2; N2; Cl2; HCl; CO2; CH4; C2H4
(h) deduce the arrangement of electrons in other covalent molecules
(i) describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving s and p bonds
(j) describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as examples of molecules containing –NH and –OH groups
(k) outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties including ice and water
(l) explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to compare the reactivities of covalent bonds
(m) describe intermolecular forces (van der Waals’ forces
(n) relate the physical properties (including electrical property) of covalent substances to their structure and bonding
(o) describe metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by mobile electrons (‘sea of electrons’)
(p) relate the electrical conductivity of metals to the mobility of the electrons in the structure
(q) describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic bonding; covalent bonding and metallic bonding) on the chemical and physical properties of substances<------------------------------ Song about chemical bonding(Not sure how to embed the video)